The history of Canillas de Aceituno
Canillas de Aceituno nestles beneath La Maroma, the highest mountain in Malaga. A white village which maintains the traditions, the flavour and the architecture of Malagueñan Axarquia.
The municipality of Canillas de Aceituno has an area of 42km2. The population centre is located at an altitude of 645 m, the average temperature is 17 ° C. And has a population of 2,323 inhabitants.
The name of Canillas de Aceituno has its etymological roots in the latin word Canillae (sugar-cane plantation area) and from the Arab word Azeytuni (woven and dyed silk), the production and commercialisation of silk being the most productive activity developed by the Muslims in this area.
The first historical information we have corresponds to the time of the Arab presence, in which the first village settlement was established. The Andalucian period signifies an Arab culture between the eighth and fifteenth centuries, taking advantage of the watercourses and the establishment of terraced smallholdings, adapted to the slopes, where vegetables and fruit trees were cultivated.
Although it is known that it belonged to the kingdom of Granada, in 1487 the troops of the Catholic Monarchs occupied the region of Axarquia, although it is unknown the exact date.
In 1569 the Moriscos of the inner axarquia are defeated in the battle of Peñón de Frigiliana. The chronicler Luis Marmol Carvajal tells of the combat. The monfíes resisted the Christian occupation, and the Moors are forced to be baptized Muslims.
In 1570 a Christian army of 5,000 men gathered in Canillas de Aceituno and end the Moorish uprising of the “Montes Bravos” or Sierra de Bentomiz.
Between 1572-1574 Canillas is repopulated with people coming from Lucena and Cordoba, Archidona and Antequera. It is also believed that families came from Andújar (Jaén), to which the veneration of the Virgin de la Cabeza is due.
In the seventeenth century, a community of Franciscan Friars of the Third Order established a convent called Tajo del Convento, dedicated to the Virgen de la Cabeza. The Marquess of Comares subjected the town of Canillas de Aceituno.
In 1712 a stone epigraph commemorates the completion of the public fountain called “Pilar Great”. The duchy of Medina Celi subjected the town of Canillas de Aceituno.
In 1811 Spain abolished all lordships and in 1812 the town of Canillas de Aceituno is no longer subject to the Dukes of Medina Celi.
In 1835 the confiscation and secularization of the last Franciscan friars of the convent of the town occurred.
In 1840 the so-called schools of the square are built. Part of the heritage is lost by ecclesiastical robbery by the French. It is a time of brigands against the chieftaincy.
Between 1865 and 1878 the phylloxera in the vineyards is present. Years of famine and cholera epidemic follow. The trade is established in ice and yew wood from Sierra Tejeda.
On December 25, 1884 an earthquake with its epicenter in Arenas del Rey (Granada) of 7 degrees on the Richter scale, caused 6 dead, 34 injured, 324 houses destroyed and 334 damaged houses, on the 19th of January 1885 king Alfonso XII visited Canillas de Aceituno.
In April 1911 the political Hermene gildo Giner visited Canillas. A group of Republican workers proclaim the Republic. There are several dead and arrested.
Between 1912 and 1924 the Society of Friends of the People, and composed of Republicans and socialist culture is created. After being banned “The Company”. Emigrates to Ceuta, Melilla, Tangiers and Oran.
On 12 October 1933 the Articles of Association of Workers of the Earth and Allied trades, Canillas de Aceituno (UGT) are signed.
1936 sees the end of the trade in wood and ice from the Sierra Tejeda. because of the start of the Civil War, Canillas de Aceituno lies within the Republican zone and was later occupied by Italian fascist troops and national guards. Between 1939 and 1955 the “maquis” anti-Franco resistance in the Sierra Tejeda is maintained.
The postwar years, the phalanx dominated the political and public life of the municipality, which determined the life and character of the people. The emigrations of the 60s begins,
The use of ice in the vicinity of La Maroma, Esparto recolecciónde for use as an industrial fibre, lime production, fuel wood collection and grazing cattle, was being done until the mid-twentieth century, which made the paths up the mountain one of the most used and known for the ascent to the summit.